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INDONESIA
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

This page contains the full text of the PARLINE database entry on the selected parliamentary chamber, with the exception of Oversight and Specialized bodies modules which, because of their excessive length, can be only viewed and printed separately.

Modules:
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PARLIAMENTARY CHAMBER

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
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Structure of parliament Unicameral
Affiliation to the IPU Yes
Affiliation date(s) 1922 -1939
1952 -
LEADERSHIP
President Marzuki Alie (M) 
Notes Elected on 1 Oct. 2009.
Secretary General Winantuningtyas Titi Swasanany (F) 
COMPOSITION
Members (statutory / current number) 560 / 560
PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN


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Women (current number) 104 (18.57%)
Mode of designation directly elected 560
Term 5 years
Last renewal dates 9 April 2009
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CONTACT INFORMATION
Address Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
Republik Indonesia
Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto
JAKARTA 10270
(Export mailing lists)
Phone (6221) 5715 841
5715 842
5715 907
Fax (6221) 5732 132
5734 460
E-mail biro_ksap@dpr.go.id
Website
http://www.dpr.go.id/

ELECTORAL SYSTEM

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Electoral law 17 December 1969
Last amendment: 31.03.2008
Mode of designation directly elected 560
Constituencies 33 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the provinces.
Voting system Proportional: Proportional system using the party list.
Political parties must ensure that at least 30 per cent of their candidates are women.
Voters may cast their ballot for either a political party or a candidate.
In order to win parliamentary representation, parties must surpass the threshold of 2.5 cent of the total votes. Seats are distributed according to the Hare quotient. Any candidates who win 30 per cent of the divisor (the lowest electoral quotient) are automatically elected.
Vacancies arising between general elections are filled by a person chosen by the former Representative's party.
Voting is not compulsory.
Voter requirements - age: 17 years or married at the time of registration
- Indonesian citizenship
- disqualifications: insanity, ex-members of the prohibited Indonesian Communist Party or affiliated mass organisations, direct or indirect involvement in the attempted Communist coup of 1965, imprisonment or confinement of at least five years' duration, members of the armed forces
CANDIDATES
Eligibility Qualified electors
- age: 21 years
- Indonesian citizenship
- proficiency in Indonesian language
- graduation from a secondary high school or equivalent knowledge and experience in social and governmental activities
- loyalty to Pancasila as the basic ideology of the State
Incompatibilities - members of the armed forces (to elected seats)
- civil servants
Candidacy requirements Submission of candidates by political parties (independent candidates are not allowed).
Political parties which contested the previous elections are automatically qualified to endorse candidates while other parties must submit to the scrutiny of the General Election Commission.

LAST ELECTIONS

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
BACKGROUND
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) 9 April 2009
Timing and scope of renewal Elections were held for all seats in the House of Representatives on the normal expiry of the members' term of office.
The 2009 parliamentary elections were held three months ahead of the presidential elections. At stake were the 560 seats in the enlarged House of Representatives.

In the previous elections held in April 2004, Golkar, the party of former President Suharto, came in first, winning 122 of the then 550-member House of Representatives. The Indonesia Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), led by then President Megawati Sukarnoputri took 109 seats. Other major parties that won parliamentary representation were the United Development Party (PPP, 58 seats), the Democratic Party (PD, 56), the National Mandate Party (PAN, 53), the National Awakening Party (PKB, 52) and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, 45). In September 2004, Mr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (PD) defeated Ms. Megawati in the run-off presidential elections.

In March 2008, the House of Representatives passed a new General Election Law, whereby parties must win 2.5 cent of the national vote to win parliamentary representation. Parties which contested the previous elections were automatically qualified for the 2009 ballot while other parties had to submit to the scrutiny of the General Elections Commission (KPU).

Indonesia's election campaign lasts nearly for nine months. It started on 12 July 2008 and ended on 5 April 2009. Some 12,000 candidates representing 38 parties were running nationwide. They included about 360 women. The 2005 Helsinki Agreement, signed between the Government and the rebel Free Aceh Movement (GAM), paved the way for the establishment of local political parties in Aceh. In addition to the 38 political parties, six local parties were running in Aceh.

The 2009 parliamentary elections were the first crucial step in the race for the presidency since the new law on presidential elections (No. 42/2008) stipulates that only parties or a coalition of parties with 20 per cent of seats in the 560-seat House of Representatives or 25 per cent of valid votes may nominate a candidate for the presidential elections.

Despite the global economic crisis, the country's economy did not enter into a recession. Many parties nevertheless focused on the economy.

President Yudhoyono's PD reportedly fared well thanks to his popularity. He called on voters' support to continue his reformist policies, arguing that his government was taking sufficient measures to protect the country from the economic downturn. Indonesia's foreign investment regulations allow for limited capital ownership, and the PD promised equal treatment of local and foreign investors. The PDI-P said it would welcome foreign investors in the country "as long as they are clean and willing to transfer their technology". Golkar, led by Vice-President Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, promised to extend the range of business open to foreign investors. It also pledged to provide welfare and a livelihood to "all struggling people".

Some Islamic parties - such as the PKS, the PAN and the PKB - adopted more moderate positions to attract voters. However, that strategy reportedly caused internal divisions among the PKS. Other Islamic parties which had won seats in the 2004 elections - the PPP and Crescent Moon and Star Party (PBB, 11 seats) - were reportedly losing ground. PDI-P leader Megawati held talks with the PPP while the PD engaged with the PKB. Pre-election polls indicated that only the PD would secure over 25 per cent of the votes nationwide.

A number of organizations filed lawsuits against the government, the Interior Ministry and the KPU, related to voters' lists. At least 10 million citizens were reportedly disenfranchised. More than 1,000 electoral violations were reported, twice the number recorded in 2004.

70.99 per cent of the 174 million registered voters turned out at the polls.

Several opposition parties, including the PDI-P, criticized the elections, arguing that they had been marred with fraud and administrative errors.

On 9 May, the KPU announced the final results. President Yudhoyono's PD won 20.85 per cent of the votes, or 148 seats. Golkar followed with 14.45 per cent of the votes (108 seats). The PDI-P finished in third position with 14.03 per cent (93 seats).

The Islamic parties won a total of 24.15 per cent of votes, their worst showing in the country's history. The local media concluded that many voters focused more on growth and jobs in the midst of the global economic crisis.

On 1 October, the newly elected House of Representatives held its first session and elected Mr. Marzuki Alie (PD) as its new Speaker.
STATISTICS
Voter turnout
Round no 19 April 2009
Number of registered electors
Voters
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes
171'265'442
121'588'366 (70.99%)
17'488'581
104'099'785
Notes
Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political group Candidates Votes % of votes
Democrats Party (PD) 21'703'137 20.85
Golkar 15'037'757 14.45
Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P) 14'600'091 14.03
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) 8'206'955 7.88
National Mandate Party (PAN) 6'254'580 6.01
United Development Party (PPP) 5'533'215 5.32
Great Indonesia Movement Party 4'646'406 4.46
National Awakening Party (PKB) 5'146'122 4.94
People's Conscience Party 3'922'870 3.77
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total of seats
Democrats Party (PD) 148
Golkar 108
Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P) 93
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) 59
National Mandate Party (PAN) 42
United Development Party (PPP) 39
Great Indonesia Movement Party 30
National Awakening Party (PKB) 26
People's Conscience Party 15
Distribution of seats according to sex
Men

Women

Percent of women
458

102

18.21%
Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
Comments
Source: House of Representatives (26.05.2009, 05.10.2009, 21.01.2010, 19.12.2011, 07.11.2012)

PRESIDENCY OF THE PARLIAMENTARY CHAMBER

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
APPOINTMENT AND TERM OF OFFICE
Title Speaker of the House of Representatives
Term - duration: 5 years (term of House)
- reasons for interruption of the term: resignation, loss of mandate, attribution of other functions outside the House, death, dissolution of the House

Appointment - elected by all Members of the House through the spokesmen of their respective factions
- the election is held at the beginning of each legislature
- after validation of mandates and swearing-in

Eligibility - any Member may be a candidate, but formal notification of candidature by a parliamentary faction is required
Voting system - public vote
- election in 2 stages: the first in meetings of the different factions; the second in the House plenary

Procedures / results - the oldest Member and the youngest Member preside over the House during the voting
- the oldest Member announces the results without delay
- the results cannot be challenged

STATUS
Status - ranks third in the hierarchy of the State
- represents the House with the authorities
- represents the House in international bodies
- in the absence of the Speaker, one of the Deputy Speakers can assume his/her role and functions

Board
Material facilities - allowance
+ expense allowance
- official residence
- official car
- secretariat and additional staff
- domestic staff
- bodyguards

FUNCTIONS
Organization of parliamentary business - convenes sessions
- establishes and modifies the agenda, with the Standing Committee
- organizes the debates and sets speaking time
- refers texts to a committee for study
Chairing of public sittings - can open, adjourn and close sittings
- ensures respect for provisions of the Constitution and Standing Orders
- the Secretary General makes announcements concerning the House
- establishes the list of speakers, gives and withdraws permission to speak
- establishes the order in which amendments are taken up and selects which amendments are to be debated
- calls for a vote, decides how it is to be carried out, verifies the voting procedure and cancels a vote in the event of irregularities
- checks the quorum
- authenticates the texts adopted and the records of debates
- interprets the rules or other regulations governing the life of the House
- has discretionary power to give the floor outside the agenda and thus organizes impromptu debates, with the agreement of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups

Special powers - establishes the budget of the House with the assistance of the Household Committee and the Secretary General
- appoints the Secretary General on the proposal of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups
- organizes the services of Parliament with the Secretary General
- the Secretary General recruits, assigns and promotes staff
- is responsible for relations with foreign Parliaments
- is responsible for safety, and in this capacity, can call the police in the event of disturbance in the Chamber
Speaking and voting rights, other functions - provides guidelines for the interpretation or completion of the text under discussion
- takes part in voting
- proposes bills or amendments
- transmits the laws adopted to the Head of State for promulgation

PARLIAMENTARY MANDATE

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
NATURE
Nature of the mandate · Linked representation - imperative mandate
Start of the mandate · When the MPs take the oath
Validation of mandates · Validation by the Verification Committee (Art. 43 a of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
· Procedure
End of the mandate · On the day when the legal term of the House ends (Art. 12 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
Can MPs resign? Yes · Yes, of their own free will (Art. 7 (1) (b) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (b) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
· Procedure: request to the Leadership of the House
· Authority competent to accept the resignation: the Leadership of the House of Representatives
Can MPs lose their mandate ? Yes (a) Revocation before expiry of mandate by the political party (Art. 7 (1) (e) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (g) and Art. 43 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(b) Definitive exclusion from Parliament by the latter: declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership (Art. 7 (1) (d) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (4) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(c) Loss of mandate by judicial decision (Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (e), (4), and 2 (1) (f) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(d) Loss of the general requirements for eligibility (Art. 5 and 7 (1) (c) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (e) and (4), as well as 2 (1) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(e) Loss of mandate for incompatibilities (Art. 7 (1) (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (h) and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(f) Death (Art. 7 (1) (a) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (a) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(g) Living outside the Indonesian territory (Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (c) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(h) General procedure (Art. 7 (2) and (3) of the Rules of the House of Representatives, and Art. 13 (1) and (4) in relation with Art. 4 (2) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
STATUS OF MEMBERS
Rank in hierarchy
Indemnities, facilities and services · Diplomatic passport
· Basic salary + additional allowance in relation with rank, marital status, and activities inside and outside Parliament
· No exemption from tax
· Pension scheme
· Other facilities:
(a) Secretariat
(b) Assistants
(c) Official housing
(d) Official car
(e) Security guards
(f) Electricity and telephone services
(g) Travel and transport allowances
Obligation to declare personal assets Yes
Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary non-accountability · The concept does exist (Art. 9 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives).
· Parliamentary non-accountability is limited to words spoken or written by MPs and votes cast within Parliament. (Parliamentary non-accountability applies to words spoken and written by MPs both within and outside Parliament.)
· Derogations: improper language (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives; see Discipline), disclosure of secrets (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, and Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code; see Code of conduct).
· Non-accountability takes effect on the day when the mandate begins.

Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary inviolability · The concept does exist (Law on Procedure for Police Action against Members/the Leadership of the House).
· It applies to criminal and civil proceedings, covers all offences with the exception of serious offences (treason, etc.) and minor offences (traffic offences, etc.), and protects MPs from police measures.
· Derogations: in case of flagrante delicto, no approval is necessary.
· Protection is provided from the start to the end of the mandate.
· Parliamentary immunity (inviolability) can be lifted:
- Competent authority: the President of the Republic
- Procedure
· Parliament cannot subject the prosecution and/or detention to certain conditions.
· Parliament cannot suspend the prosecution and/or detention of one of its members.
· In the event of preventive custody or imprisonment, the MPs concerned cannot be authorised to attend sittings of Parliament.
EXERCISE OF THE MANDATE
Training · There is no training/initiation process on parliamentary practices and procedures for MPs.
· Handbooks of parliamentary procedure:
- Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives
Participation in the work of the Parliament · It is compulsory for MPs to be present at plenary sittings, committee meetings and other meetings (see also Art. 99 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives).
· There are no penalties foreseen in case of failure to fulfil this obligation.


Discipline · The rules governing discipline within Parliament are contained in Art. 109 (2), 111 (2), and 112 to 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives.
· Disciplinary measures foreseen:
- Order to discontinue the speech (Art. 109 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Warning for irrelevance (Art. 111 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to discontinue improper words (Art. 113 (1) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to leave the sitting (Art. 113 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Expulsion by force from the assembly hall (Art. 113 (3) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Closure or adjournment of the meeting (Art. 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
· Specific cases:
- Improper language, disturbance of the order of the meeting, incitement to illegal actions during the meeting (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives): order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words
· Competent body to judge such cases/to apply penalties: the Chairman of the meeting
· Procedure:
- Order to discontinue the speech (Art. 109 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Warning for irrelevance (Art. 111 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words, order to discontinue improper words, order to leave the sitting, expulsion by force from the assembly hall, closure or adjournment of the meeting, improper language, disturbance of the order of the meeting, incitement to illegal actions during the meeting (Art. 112 to 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)


Code (rules) of conduct · This concept does not exist in the country's juridical system but there are some relevant provisions (Art. 7 (1) (d) and (f), 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (h), Art. 4 (4), 34 and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code, Law on Police Measures against MPs; see also Declaration of interests).
· Penalties foreseen for violation of those rules:
- Loss of mandate (Art. 7 (1) (d) and (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (h), Art. 4 (4), and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives; declaration that the MP has violated the oath/ pledge of membership/incompatibilities)
- Judgement that the MP has offended Parliament (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives; disclosure of secrets)
· Competent body to judge such cases/to impose penalties:
- Declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership: the House of Representatives
- Loss of mandate for incompatibilities: automatically
- Disclosure of secrets: respective court
· Procedure:
- Declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership (Art. 7 (1) (d) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f), and 4 (4) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
- Loss of mandate for incompatibilities (Art. 7 (1) (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (h), and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
- Disclosure of secrets (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code, Law on Police Measures against MPs; disclosure of secrets)

Relations between MPs and pressure group · There are no legal provisions in this field.

This page was last updated on 5 March 2013
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