IPU Logo    INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION
>>> VERSION FRANÇAISE  
   HOME -> PARLINE -> INDONESIA (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat)
Print this pagePrint this page
PARLINE database new searchNew search
INDONESIA
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

This page contains the full text of the PARLINE database entry on the selected parliamentary chamber, with the exception of Oversight and Specialized bodies modules which, because of their excessive length, can be only viewed and printed separately.

Modules:
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PARLIAMENTARY CHAMBER

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
More photos  >>>
Structure of parliament Unicameral
Affiliation to the IPU Yes
Affiliation date(s) 1922 -1939
1952 -
LEADERSHIP
President Marzuki Alie (M) 
Notes Elected on 1 Oct. 2009.
Secretary General Winantuningtyas Titi Swasanany (F) 
COMPOSITION
Members (statutory / current number) 560 / 560
PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN


More statistics  >>>
Women (current number) 94 (16.79%)
Mode of designation directly elected 560
Term 5 years
Last renewal dates 9 April 2014
(View details)
CONTACT INFORMATION
Address Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
Republik Indonesia
Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto
JAKARTA 10270
(Export mailing lists)
Phone (6221) 5715 841
5715 842
5715 907
Fax (6221) 5732 132
5734 460
E-mail biro_ksap@dpr.go.id
Website
http://www.dpr.go.id/

ELECTORAL SYSTEM

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Electoral law 17 December 1969
Last amendment: 11 May 2012 (Law 8/2012)
Mode of designation directly elected 560
Constituencies 33 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the provinces (comprising 3 to 10 seats each).
Voting system Proportional: Proportional system using the open party list.
Voters may cast their ballot for either a political party or a candidate.
In order to win parliamentary representation, parties must surpass the threshold of 3.5 cent of the total votes. Seats are distributed according to the Hare quotient. Any candidate who wins 30 per cent of the divisor (the lowest electoral quotient) is automatically elected.
Vacancies arising between general elections are filled by a person chosen by the former Representative's party.
Voting is not compulsory.
Voter requirements - age: 17 years or married at the time of registration
- Indonesian citizenship
- disqualifications: insanity, ex-members of the prohibited Indonesian Communist Party or affiliated mass organizations, direct or indirect involvement in the attempted Communist coup of 1965, imprisonment or confinement of at least five years' duration, members of the armed forces
CANDIDATES
Eligibility Qualified electors
- age: 21 years
- Indonesian citizenship
- proficiency in Indonesian language
- graduation from a secondary high school or equivalent knowledge and experience in social and governmental activities
- loyalty to Pancasila as the basic ideology of the State
Incompatibilities - members of the armed forces
- civil servants
Candidacy requirements - Submission of candidates by political parties.
Political parties which contested the previous elections are automatically qualified to endorse candidates while other parties must submit to the scrutiny of the General Election Commission.
- Political parties must ensure that at least 30 per cent of their candidates are women. There should be at least one woman for every three candidates. Political parties that do not meet the requirement are disqualified from submitting their party list in the electoral district where the quota is not met.

LAST ELECTIONS

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
BACKGROUND
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) 9 April 2014
Timing and scope of renewal The opposition Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P) led by former President Megawati Sukarnoputri came in first, taking 109 of the 560 seats at stake, though it failed to meet the conditions needed to be able to put forward a candidate on its own to the presidential elections due on 9 July (see note). Golkar, formerly led by the long-serving former President Suharto, remained the second largest party with 91 seats, and Gerindra (meaning "Great Indonesia Movement"), which endorsed former general Prabowo Subianto as its presidential candidate, took 73 seats. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat, PD) - the largest force in the outgoing legislature - finished fourth with 61 seats, reportedly damaged by several graft scandals. Having served two presidential terms, President Yudhoyono is constitutionally barred from seeking a new term.

Five Islamic-based parties took nearly 30 per cent of vote altogether, up from 24 per cent scored in 2009. Four of them surpassed the 3.5-per-cent threshold to win parliamentary representation: the National Awakening Party (PKB), the National Mandate Party (PAN), the United Development Party (PPP) and the People's Conscience Party (Hanura).

PDI-P's expected presidential candidate, Jakarta governor Mr. Joko Widodo, said he would reduce the country's deficit by lowering fuel subsidies over the next few years. Golkar's leader Aburizal Bakrie, a mining and business tycoon, supported the subsidies and their eventual increase. Mr. Prabowo (Gerindra) promised to ensure that the subsidies be only used by the poor and lower middle class. After the parliamentary elections, the PKB and the National Democrat (NasDem), a new party which finished in eighth position with 35 seats, announced their support for Mr. Widodo.

The 2014 elections were the first to be held since the adoption of Law 8/2012, which foresees that at least 1 in every 3 candidates included on a political party list should be a woman. Political parties that do not meet the requirement are disqualified from submitting a list in the electoral district where the quota is not met.

Note:
A party must win 25 per cent of the national vote or 20 per cent of the 560 seats in parliament to be able to submit a candidate for the presidency.
Date of previous elections: 9 April 2009

Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature: N/A

Timing of election: Upon normal expiry

Expected date of next elections: April 2019

Number of seats at stake: 560 (full renewal)

Number of candidates: 6,607 (4,142 men, 2,465 women)

Percentage of women candidates: 37.3%

Number of parties contesting the election: 12

Number of parties winning seats: 10
STATISTICS
Voter turnout
Round no 19 April 2014
Number of registered electors
Voters
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes
185'822'507
139'573'927 (75.11%)

Notes
Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political group Candidates Votes % of votes
Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI)
Golkar
Gerindra ("Great Indonesia Movement")
Democratic Party (PD)
National Mandate Party (PAN)
National Awakening Party (PKB)
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS)
United Development Party (PPP)
NasDem party
Hanura (People's Conscience Party)
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total of seats
Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) 109
Golkar 91
Gerindra ("Great Indonesia Movement") 73
Democratic Party (PD) 61
National Mandate Party (PAN) 49
National Awakening Party (PKB) 47
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) 40
United Development Party (PPP) 39
NasDem party 35
Hanura (People's Conscience Party) 16
Distribution of seats according to sex
Men

Women

Percent of women
466

94

16.79%
Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
Comments
Sources:
House of Representatives (28.05.2014)
http://www.setkab.go.id/berita-13015-pembagian-kursi-hasil-pileg-2014-pdip-109-golkar-91-gerindra-73-dan-demokrat-61.html

PRESIDENCY OF THE PARLIAMENTARY CHAMBER

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
APPOINTMENT AND TERM OF OFFICE
Title Speaker of the House of Representatives
Term - duration: 5 years (term of House)
- reasons for interruption of the term: resignation, loss of mandate, attribution of other functions outside the House, death, dissolution of the House

Appointment - elected by all Members of the House through the spokesmen of their respective factions
- the election is held at the beginning of each legislature
- after validation of mandates and swearing-in

Eligibility - any Member may be a candidate, but formal notification of candidature by a parliamentary faction is required
Voting system - public vote
- election in 2 stages: the first in meetings of the different factions; the second in the House plenary

Procedures / results - the oldest Member and the youngest Member preside over the House during the voting
- the oldest Member announces the results without delay
- the results cannot be challenged

STATUS
Status - ranks third in the hierarchy of the State
- represents the House with the authorities
- represents the House in international bodies
- in the absence of the Speaker, one of the Deputy Speakers can assume his/her role and functions

Board
Material facilities - allowance
+ expense allowance
- official residence
- official car
- secretariat and additional staff
- domestic staff
- bodyguards

FUNCTIONS
Organization of parliamentary business - convenes sessions
- establishes and modifies the agenda, with the Standing Committee
- organizes the debates and sets speaking time
- refers texts to a committee for study
Chairing of public sittings - can open, adjourn and close sittings
- ensures respect for provisions of the Constitution and Standing Orders
- the Secretary General makes announcements concerning the House
- establishes the list of speakers, gives and withdraws permission to speak
- establishes the order in which amendments are taken up and selects which amendments are to be debated
- calls for a vote, decides how it is to be carried out, verifies the voting procedure and cancels a vote in the event of irregularities
- checks the quorum
- authenticates the texts adopted and the records of debates
- interprets the rules or other regulations governing the life of the House
- has discretionary power to give the floor outside the agenda and thus organizes impromptu debates, with the agreement of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups

Special powers - establishes the budget of the House with the assistance of the Household Committee and the Secretary General
- appoints the Secretary General on the proposal of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups
- organizes the services of Parliament with the Secretary General
- the Secretary General recruits, assigns and promotes staff
- is responsible for relations with foreign Parliaments
- is responsible for safety, and in this capacity, can call the police in the event of disturbance in the Chamber

Speaking and voting rights, other functions - provides guidelines for the interpretation or completion of the text under discussion
- takes part in voting
- proposes bills or amendments
- transmits the laws adopted to the Head of State for promulgation

PARLIAMENTARY MANDATE

Parliament name (generic / translated) Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / House of Representatives
Structure of parliament Unicameral
NATURE
Nature of the mandate · Linked representation - imperative mandate
Start of the mandate · When the MPs take the oath
Validation of mandates · Validation by the Verification Committee (Art. 43 a of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
· Procedure
End of the mandate · On the day when the legal term of the House ends (Art. 12 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
Can MPs resign? Yes · Yes, of their own free will (Art. 7 (1) (b) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (b) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
· Procedure: request to the Leadership of the House
· Authority competent to accept the resignation: the Leadership of the House of Representatives
Can MPs lose their mandate ? Yes (a) Revocation before expiry of mandate by the political party (Art. 7 (1) (e) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (g) and Art. 43 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(b) Definitive exclusion from Parliament by the latter: declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership (Art. 7 (1) (d) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (4) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(c) Loss of mandate by judicial decision (Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (e), (4), and 2 (1) (f) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(d) Loss of the general requirements for eligibility (Art. 5 and 7 (1) (c) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (e) and (4), as well as 2 (1) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(e) Loss of mandate for incompatibilities (Art. 7 (1) (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (h) and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(f) Death (Art. 7 (1) (a) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (a) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(g) Living outside the Indonesian territory (Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (c) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
(h) General procedure (Art. 7 (2) and (3) of the Rules of the House of Representatives, and Art. 13 (1) and (4) in relation with Art. 4 (2) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
STATUS OF MEMBERS
Rank in hierarchy
Indemnities, facilities and services · Diplomatic passport
· Basic salary + additional allowance in relation with rank, marital status, and activities inside and outside Parliament
· No exemption from tax
· Pension scheme
· Other facilities:
(a) Secretariat
(b) Assistants
(c) Official housing
(d) Official car
(e) Security guards
(f) Electricity and telephone services
(g) Travel and transport allowances
Obligation to declare personal assets Yes
Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary non-accountability · The concept does exist (Art. 9 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives).
· Parliamentary non-accountability is limited to words spoken or written by MPs and votes cast within Parliament. (Parliamentary non-accountability applies to words spoken and written by MPs both within and outside Parliament.)
· Derogations: improper language (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives; see Discipline), disclosure of secrets (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, and Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code; see Code of conduct).
· Non-accountability takes effect on the day when the mandate begins.

Parliamentary immunity - parliamentary inviolability · The concept does exist (Law on Procedure for Police Action against Members/the Leadership of the House).
· It applies to criminal and civil proceedings, covers all offences with the exception of serious offences (treason, etc.) and minor offences (traffic offences, etc.), and protects MPs from police measures.
· Derogations: in case of flagrante delicto, no approval is necessary.
· Protection is provided from the start to the end of the mandate.
· Parliamentary immunity (inviolability) can be lifted:
- Competent authority: the President of the Republic
- Procedure
· Parliament cannot subject the prosecution and/or detention to certain conditions.
· Parliament cannot suspend the prosecution and/or detention of one of its members.
· In the event of preventive custody or imprisonment, the MPs concerned cannot be authorised to attend sittings of Parliament.
EXERCISE OF THE MANDATE
Training · There is no training/initiation process on parliamentary practices and procedures for MPs.
· Handbooks of parliamentary procedure:
- Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives
Participation in the work of the Parliament · It is compulsory for MPs to be present at plenary sittings, committee meetings and other meetings (see also Art. 99 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives).
· There are no penalties foreseen in case of failure to fulfil this obligation.


Discipline · The rules governing discipline within Parliament are contained in Art. 109 (2), 111 (2), and 112 to 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives.
· Disciplinary measures foreseen:
- Order to discontinue the speech (Art. 109 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Warning for irrelevance (Art. 111 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to discontinue improper words (Art. 113 (1) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to leave the sitting (Art. 113 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Expulsion by force from the assembly hall (Art. 113 (3) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Closure or adjournment of the meeting (Art. 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
· Specific cases:
- Improper language, disturbance of the order of the meeting, incitement to illegal actions during the meeting (Art. 112 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives): order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words
· Competent body to judge such cases/to apply penalties: the Chairman of the meeting
· Procedure:
- Order to discontinue the speech (Art. 109 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Warning for irrelevance (Art. 111 (2) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)
- Order to stop improper actions or to withdraw improper words, order to discontinue improper words, order to leave the sitting, expulsion by force from the assembly hall, closure or adjournment of the meeting, improper language, disturbance of the order of the meeting, incitement to illegal actions during the meeting (Art. 112 to 114 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives)


Code (rules) of conduct · This concept does not exist in the country's juridical system but there are some relevant provisions (Art. 7 (1) (d) and (f), 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (h), Art. 4 (4), 34 and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code, Law on Police Measures against MPs; see also Declaration of interests).
· Penalties foreseen for violation of those rules:
- Loss of mandate (Art. 7 (1) (d) and (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f) and (h), Art. 4 (4), and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives; declaration that the MP has violated the oath/ pledge of membership/incompatibilities)
- Judgement that the MP has offended Parliament (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives; disclosure of secrets)
· Competent body to judge such cases/to impose penalties:
- Declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership: the House of Representatives
- Loss of mandate for incompatibilities: automatically
- Disclosure of secrets: respective court
· Procedure:
- Declaration that the MP has violated the oath/pledge of membership (Art. 7 (1) (d) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) and (3) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (f), and 4 (4) of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
- Loss of mandate for incompatibilities (Art. 7 (1) (f) of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 13 (1) in relation with Art. 4 (1) (h), and 38 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives)
- Disclosure of secrets (Art. 9 (2) and 98 of the Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives, Art. 34 of the Law No. 16 Concerning the Composition and Status of the People's Consultative Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Regional House of Representatives, Volume II, Chapter I of the Penal Code, Law on Police Measures against MPs; disclosure of secrets)

Relations between MPs and pressure group · There are no legal provisions in this field.

This page was last updated on 28 May 2014
Copyright 1996-2013 Inter-Parliamentary Union