ELECTIONS HELD IN 1992
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|24 June 1992
19 and 26 July 1992
|Elections were held for all seats in the new National Assembly and Senate provided for in the March 1992 Constitution to replace the transitional legislature, the High Council of the Republic. The former People’s National Assembly had been dissolved in April 1991.|
|From 25 February to 10 June 1991, a sovereign national conference was convened to introduce democratic reforms in the country following months of unrest and demands for democracy. In mid-April, the conference dissolved the unicameral People’s National Assembly, among other State institutions. The President of the Republic was stripped of most of his powers and in June, a 153-member High Council of the Republic (HCR) was set up to serve as the legislature and oversee implementation of the conference’s decisions during a transitional period which was to culminate with the holding of parliamentary and presidential elections. An election calendar was drawn up but the various elections could not be held according to schedule as a result of organizational difficulties and bickering among the country’s main political forces.
A referendum was held in mid-March 1992 during which 93% of the voters approved a new Constitution that had earlier been adopted by the HCR. The first round of the parliamentary elections was held on 24 June while the second round took place on 19 July. By-elections also had to be held on 5 July in three Brazzaville constituencies where polling operations had been suspended because of the lack of election material. The senatorial elections, for their part, took place on 26 July.
The elections were contested by more than 1700 candidates with the main contending parties being the former single party, the Congolese Labour Party (PCT) of President Sassou Nguessou, Mr. Pascal Lissouba’s Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) and Mr. Bernard Kolelas’ Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI).
UPADS took an early lead in the first round of balloting. This lead was confirmed in the second round although the party failed to win an absolute majority in the National Assembly. It was followed by MCDDI and PCT. Voting results showed that the Congolese had voted along tribal and regional lines with UPADS performing well in its leader’s power base, the south, while MCDDI led in the Pool region and several quarters of the capital, Brazzaville. PCT won most of its votes in the northern Congo Basin region, President Nguesso’s region of birth. The results were challenged by many parties including PCT, which called for an annulment of the first round, charging irregularities.
The Senate elections also witnessed the same pattern of results as for the National Assembly elections with UPADS winning the most seats but falling short of an absolute majority, followed by MCDDI and PCT.
On 31 August, Mr. Pascal Lissouba was sworn in as the new President of the Republic after he had won 61.32% of the votes in the second round of the elections earlier in the month. On September, he appointed Mr. Stephane Bongho-Nouarra of UPADS as Prime Minister. A new Cabinet was appointed on 7 September. Meanwhile, the Union for Democratic Renewal (URD), a new seven-party alliance including MCDDI and the Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), had formed a coalition with PCT, thus putting together a new parliamentary majority. On 31 October, the National Assembly passed a no-confidence motion in the Government in the absence of parties close to the President, who protested against procedural irregularities. Prime Minister Bongho-Nouarra was forced to tender his Government’s resignation and, on 17 November, President Lissouba dissolved Parliament, calling for new elections with a view to resolving the stalemate. In December, Mr. Claude Antoine Dacosta was appointed Prime Minister to head a transitional government which would rule the country until the next legislative elections.
|Round no 1: Distribution of seats|
|Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS)||39|
|Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI)||29|
|Congolese Labour Party (PCT)||19|
|Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS)||9|
|Rally for Democracy and Development (RDD)||5|
|Union of Social Democrats (UDS)||3|
|Union for Social Progress and Democracy (UPSD)||2|
Copyright © 1992 Inter-Parliamentary Union