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MOZAMBIQUE
Assembleia da Republica (Assembly of the Republic)

This page contains the full text of the PARLINE database entry on the selected parliamentary chamber, with the exception of Oversight and Specialized bodies modules which, because of their excessive length, can be only viewed and printed separately.

Modules:
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PARLIAMENTARY CHAMBER

Parliament name (generic / translated) Assembleia da Republica / Assembly of the Republic
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Structure of parliament Unicameral
Affiliation to the IPU
Affiliation date(s)
LEADERSHIP
President Verónica Nataniel Macamo Dlovo (F) 
Notes Elected on 12 Jan. 2010.
Secretary General Armando Mário Correia (M) 
Notes 15 May 2012 -
COMPOSITION
Members (statutory / current number) 250 / 250
PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN


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Women (current number) 98 (39.20%)
Mode of designation directly elected 250
Term 5 years
Last renewal dates 28 October 2009
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CONTACT INFORMATION
Address Assembleia da Republica
C.P. 1516 - MAPUTO
(Export mailing lists)
Phone (258) 2140 08 26
2140 08 32
Fax (258) 2140 07 11
2140 88 46 (Secretary General)
E-mail gpar@parlamento.com.org (Speaker)
cdi@sortmoz.com
Website
http://www.parlamento.org.mz/

ELECTORAL SYSTEM

Parliament name (generic / translated) Assembleia da Republica / Assembly of the Republic
Structure of parliament Unicameral
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Electoral law 28 December 1993
Mode of designation directly elected 250
Constituencies - 11 multi-member constituencies (12 to 50 representatives for each, based on population), corresponding to the country's provinces
- 2 single-member constituencies, corresponding to the Mozambican communities in the countries of Europe and Africa, respectively.
Voting system Proportional: Party-list proportional representation system according to d'Hondt method; 5% vote threshold for parties to gain parliamentary representation.
Vacancies which arise between general elections are filled by substitutes chosen alongside titular members.
Voting is not compulsory.
Voter requirements - age: 18 years
- Mozambican citizenship
- disqualifications: legal deprivation (of right), mental deficiency or insanity, imprisonment or detention
CANDIDATES
Eligibility Qualified electors
- age: 18 years
- Mozambican citizenship
- ineligibility: persons sentenced to imprisonment for certain offences committed as public servants, habitual offenders.
Incompatibilities - government employment
- paid service for foreign State or international organization
- affiliation with National Electoral Commission
- judges
- civil servants
- members of the armed forces
- career diplomats
Candidacy requirements - membership of political party or coalition of parties

LAST ELECTIONS

Parliament name (generic / translated) Assembleia da Republica / Assembly of the Republic
Structure of parliament Unicameral
BACKGROUND
Dates of election / renewal (from/to) 28 October 2009
Timing and scope of renewal Early elections were held for all seats in the Assembly of the Republic. The elections had previously taken place in December 2004.
On 20 April 2009, President Armando Guebuza issued a decree setting the date for parliamentary and presidential elections for 28 October. The 2009 elections were the fourth to be held since the end of the country's civil war in 1992.

The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) has run the country since Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975. It has won all multi-party elections - both parliamentary and presidential - since 1994. In the 2004 elections it won 160 out of the 250 parliamentary seats. The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), a former rebel group against whom the FRELIMO-led government had fought a 15-year civil war, took 90 seats. In the 2004 presidential elections, Mr. Guebuza, a wealthy businessman backed by outgoing President Joachim Chisano beat long-time RENAMO leader Afonso Dhlakama.

Prior to the 2009 elections, RENAMO was reportedly losing ground due to an internal split. In March 2009, its dissidents formed the Democratic Movement of Mozambique (MDM) under the leadership of Mr. Daviz Simango. The MDM backed Mr. Simango, the mayor of Beira, the country's second largest city, as its presidential candidate. He is the son of a former FRELIMO Vice-President, Mr. Uria Simango, who was assassinated in the late 1970s.

Once again, FRELIMO and RENAMO respectively endorsed Mr. Guebuza and Mr. Dhlakama for the presidency. Mr. Dhlakama, contesting the presidential elections for the fourth time, said that he would not run for president again if he lost the 2009 elections.

In June, Mr. Simango survived an apparent assassination attempt that the police blamed on Mr. Dhlakama's bodyguards. Mr. Dhlakama and his party dismissed the allegations. However, the MDM and RENAMO have traded accusations ever since.

Nearly 30 parties applied to run for the parliamentary elections but the National Elections Commission (CNE) registered only 17 parties and two coalitions due to alleged registration irregularities. The CNE also rejected many MDM candidates for similar reasons. MDM leader Simango insisted that the nomination papers of rejected MDM candidates had been duly stamped by the CNE and thus there could not have been any irregularities. However, the CNE did not review its decision. Consequently, the MDM fielded candidates in only four of the 11 multi-member constituencies, while FRELIMO and RENAMO fielded candidates in all the constituencies.

FRELIMO, RENAMO and the MDM all campaigned on a similar platform, pledging to attract more foreign investment, develop the rural economy and fight corruption. They presented manifestos of varying lengths, ranging from a mere 350 words (RENAMO) to a 24-page tabloid (MDM) to a small book (FRELIMO).

President Guebuza pledged to reinforce national unity and consolidate peace. FRELIMO highlighted its record on fighting poverty through the Local Initiative Investment Budget (OIIL), with a budget of 7 million meticais (about US$ 263,000) to increase food production. According to FRELIMO, the OIIL had helped create 12,000 jobs since its inception in 2006. FRELIMO promised to provide more training, employment and housing, in particular to the youth and former combatants.

RENAMO pledged to bring about peace, stability, more democracy, development as well as freedom of expression and opinion. It promised to prevent starvation. It accused FRELIMO of election fraud, an allegation which FRELIMO denied.

MDM leader Simango labelled the FRELIMO government as a "fascist regime" and blamed it for "conserving its economic empire" at the cost of the poverty of many citizens. The MDM promised to focus on employment and opportunities for youth.

A total of 44.44 per cent of the 9.8 million registered voters turned out at the polls, up from the 36 per cent in 2004.

The Commonwealth and the European Union (EU) monitored the polls. They both praised the country for the well-organized and peaceful voting. The EU observers added that freedom of speech had been respected during the campaign period. However, the EU criticized the complexity of the electoral legal framework that had resulted in the rejection of some party lists. The Commonwealth observers criticized the National Elections Commission for its lack of transparency.

The final results gave 191 seats to FRELIMO, up from 160. RENAMO took 51, losing 39. The MDM won eight seats. Mr. Guebuza was re-elected as President.

On 28 December, the Constitutional Council dismissed RENAMO's claims of massive fraud and validated the election results.

The newly elected Assembly of the Republic held its first session on 12 January 2010. Ms. Verónica Nataniel Macamo Dlovo (FRELIMO) was elected as Speaker, becoming the first woman to assume the post in Mozambique. Only 16 of the 51 RENAMO members took the oath at the first session. Members who do not take their seats within thirty days of the first session automatically lose their parliamentary mandate.

On 14 January, Mr. Guebuza was sworn in for a second term.
STATISTICS
Voter turnout
Round no 128 October 2009
Number of registered electors
Voters
Blank or invalid ballot papers
Valid votes
9'871'949
4'387'250 (44.44%)
493'392
3'893'858
Notes
Distribution of votes
Round no 1
Political group Candidates Votes % of votes
Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 2'907'335 74.66
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) 688'782 17.68
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (MDM) 152'836 3.93
Distribution of seats
Round no 1
Political Group Total of seats
Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 191
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) 51
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (MDM) 8
Distribution of seats according to sex
Men

Women

Percent of women
152

98

39.20%
Distribution of seats according to age
Distribution of seats according to profession
Comments
Sources:
- Assembly of the Republic (29.01.2010)
- Mozambique News Agency (http://www.poptel.org.uk/mozambique-news/)

This page was last updated on 2 July 2012
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