By G.S. Goodwin-Gill. In 1994 the first edition of Free and Fair Elections sought to establish the content of the rules and standard of international law pertaining to free and fair elections, with special attention to State practice. The new, expanded edition demonstrates how the concept of free and fair elections has become firmly entrenched in the law of international and regional organizations in the past decade. It reviews progress in the adoption and consolidation of relevant international standards since 1994; it assesses developments in law and practice (including such emerging issues as electronic voting and gender balance); identifies outstanding problematic areas; and sets out some of the bases for a present and future research agenda. The second part contains the full text of the 1994 study in its original form.