Despite increases in the number of women at the highest levels of political power, widespread gender inequalities persist, according to the 2021 edition of the IPU-UN Women Map of Women in Politics.
The IPU-UN Women Map presents new data for women in government and parliamentary positions as of 1 January 2021. The data shows all-time highs for the number of countries with women Heads of State and/or Heads of Government, as well as for the global share of women Ministers.
However, after last year’s map showed a spike at 21.3 per cent of women ministers, progression has slowed – with just a small increase to 21.9 per cent as of 1 January 2021. The data also reveals that the number of countries with no women in government has increased, bucking a downward trend seen the last few years.
There were also sluggish gains in the global growth of women parliamentarians in 2020, as shown in the IPU’s annual report on Women in Parliament, launched last week. As of 1 January 2021, the global share of women in national parliaments is 25.5 per cent, a slight increase from 24.9 per cent the year before.
UN Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka said “No country prospers without the engagement of women. We need women’s representation that reflects all women and girls in all their diversity and abilities, and across all cultural, social, economic and political situations. This year’s map shows us that we still need bold decisive action across the world to bring women into the heart of decision-making spaces in large numbers and as full partners. There’s no doubt this can and should be done. It should be done now.”
IPU Secretary General Martin Chungong said “This year’s growth in the number of women in political decision-making is just not good enough. Especially when you consider that 70 per cent of health, care and service workers during this pandemic are women. It’s up to all of us, both men and women, to keep pushing for greater representation of women in politics. We have the tools to make it happen. What we need now is the political will.”
The new data was presented ahead of the Commission of the Status of Women, the largest UN gathering on gender equality, which this year has as its priority theme “Women's full and effective participation and decision-making in public life, as well as the elimination of violence, for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls”. It also comes in the run-up to the Generation Equality Forum, which will deliver multi-stakeholder, game-changing Action Coalitions on six topics including Leadership and Feminist Movements.
More women Heads of State and Government
According to the new data, women occupy the role of Heads of State or Government in 22 countries, up from 20 countries this time last year. As of 1 January 2021, 5.9 per cent of elected Heads of State (9 out of 152) and 6.7 per cent of Heads of Government (13 out of 193) are women.
Europe is the region with the most countries led by women, with five out of the world’s nine women Heads of State and seven out of the world’s 13 women Heads of Government. The Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway are all currently led by women.
Fewer gender-equal governments
The number of countries in which women hold 50 per cent or more of ministerial positions dropped from 14 this time last year to 13 in 2021.
Countries with women holding 50 per cent or more ministerial positions
- Nicaragua - 58.82%
- Austria - 57.14%
- Belgium - 57.14%
- Sweden - 57.14%
- Albania - 56.25%
- Rwanda - 54.84%
- Costa Rica - 52.00%
- Canada - 51.43%
- Andorra, Finland, France, Guinea-Bissau, Spain - 50.00%
More women ministers across all regions
Political will plays a role in advancing gender equality, particularly when it comes to appointing ministers. As a result, some countries saw dramatic increases in their share of women ministers in 2021.
Europe experienced the two biggest jumps in women's political representation at the executive level in 2021. The share of women in government went from 8 per cent to 43 per cent in Lithuania, and more than doubled in Belgium, from 25 per cent to 57 per cent.
Namibia made the biggest leap forward in Sub-Saharan Africa, increasing its overall share of women ministers from 15 per cent to 39 per cent. Rwanda still leads the region, maintaining the largest share of women ministers at 54.8 per cent as well as topping the global charts again in the share of women parliamentarians.
In the Americas, the newly-appointed government in the United States is shaping up to be the most gender-balanced in the country’s history: women in charge of ministerial portfolios rose from 17 per cent this time last year to 46 per cent as of 1 January 2021. The United States also made history in 2020 with the election for the first time of a woman as Vice President. The clear leader, however, both globally and in the region, is Nicaragua, with 58.82 per cent of ministries led by women.
In Asia, Mongolia progressed from 6.7 per cent women-led ministerial portfolios on 1 January 2020 to 18.8 per cent today, the biggest percentage point increase in the region.
In the Middle East and North Africa region, Lebanon currently has the largest share of women ministers, at 31.6 per cent. Tunisia saw the greatest increase, leaping to 29.2 per cent – up from 6.9 per cent this time last year.
In the Pacific region, Kiribati gained one woman minister and its parliament elected a woman Speaker for the first time. New Zealand maintains the largest share of women ministers at 40 per cent, increasing by 10 per cent compared to the previous year.
Number of countries with no women ministers rises
Despite overall gains across all regions, the number of countries with no women ministers as of 1 January 2021 increased to 12, compared to nine this time last year.
As of 1 January 2021, no women serve in the governments of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Brunei Darussalam, D.P.R. Korea, Papua New Guinea, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Viet Nam and Yemen.
Environment is the top portfolio held by women
The environment or energy portfolio jumped from third place this time last year to the top spot as of 1 January 2021 of ministerial portfolios held by women.
Women ministers nonetheless continue to dominate portfolios covering social affairs, women’s affairs and gender equality.
However, women's share in traditionally male-led ministerial portfolios has slightly increased in 2021 compared to 2020; for example, there are now 13.5 per cent of defense portfolios held by women compared to 11.9 per cent a year ago, and 11.5 of finance portfolios compared to 10.1 per cent a year ago.
The share of women ministers in charge of foreign affairs portfolios also saw a significant increase compared with this time last year, rising from 16.8 per cent to 26 per cent in 2021.
About the IPU
The IPU is the global organization of national parliaments. It was founded more than 130 years ago as the first multilateral political organization in the world, encouraging cooperation and dialogue between all nations. Today, the IPU comprises 179 national Member Parliaments and 13 regional parliamentary bodies. It promotes democracy and helps parliaments become stronger, younger, gender-balanced and more diverse. It also defends the human rights of parliamentarians through a dedicated committee made up of MPs from around the world. Twice a year, the IPU convenes over 1,500 parliamentary delegates and partners in a world assembly, bringing a parliamentary dimension to global governance, including the work of the United Nations and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
About UN Women
UN Women is the UN organization dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women. A global champion for women and girls, UN Women was established to accelerate progress on meeting their needs worldwide.
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