Every country in the world has some form of parliament. Parliamentary systems fall into two categories: bicameral and unicameral. Out of 193 countries in the world, 79 are bicameral and 113 are unicameral, making a total of 272 chambers of parliament with over 46,000 members of parliament. IPU membership is made up of 179 national parliaments. Discover the world's national
COP26 is the foremost international conference on climate change. It brings together leaders from across the globe to advance climate action and to promote implementation of the Paris Agreement, the world’s major legally-binding international treaty on climate change.
The IPU has been collecting data on parliaments since its inception in 1889, including information on women’s participation in politics since 1945. In this section, discover the IPU's knowledge bank for and about parliaments.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Latvian parliament (Saeima) was forced to adopt digital innovations at a speed never witnessed before. In order to ensure that legislators were able to fulfil core parliamentary functions while adhering to physical distancing requirements necessary to limit the spread of the virus, a holistic technological solution was developed, called the “e-Saeima”.
Through the e-Saeima, Members of Parliament no longer have to be physically present at the parliament building to carry out their work. Apart from being able to work fully remotely from anywhere in the world, the platform enables secure identification of MPs and electronic voting through e-signature in real time. In recognition of their varying levels of experience in the use of IT tools, parliamentarians received extensive training and support as they moved to a new fully virtual parliamentary environment.
E-Saeima sittings are not just open to MPs to deliberate, but to the public at large too. This means that anyone can follow the remote sittings online.